Introduction: Classification and principles of surveying. Triangulation and Trilateration Earth as spheroid, datum, geoid, Azimuth, latitude, longitude, Map projections, scales, plans, & Maps.

Chain surveying: Instrumentation for chaining – Errors due to incorrect chain-Chaining on uneven and sloping ground-Errors in chaining-Tape corrections – Problems: Base line measurement-chain Triangulation-Check lines, Tie lines, Offsets. Basic problems in chaining- obstacles in chaining-Problems-Conventional signs.

Compass Survey: (a) Introduction to compass survey Definitions of Bearing. True bearing, True meridian, Magnetic Meridian, Magnetic bearing – Arbitrary Meridian, R.B & B.B of lines – Designation of bearing – W.C.B. & R.B. – Conversion of bearings – from one systems to the other Related problems – Calculation of angles for bearings, Calculation of bearings for angles, Related problems – Theory of Magnetic compass (i.e. Prismatic compass) – Magnetic dip- Description of Prismatic compass. Temporary adjustments of compass-Magnetic Declination – Local attraction-Related problems –Errors in compass survey.(b)Traverse Surveying: Chain and compass traversing-Free or loose needle method – Fast needle method-Checks in closed and open traverse-Plotting methods of traverse Survey-Closing error-Balancing the traverse-Bowditch’s method-Transit method, gale’s Traverse

Plane table surveying: Introduction-Advantages, Accessories-Working operations such as fixing the table to tripod, leveling-centering-orientation by back-sighting. Methods of plane tabling- Plane table traversing-Three point problem- Mechanical method – Graphical method- Two point problem-Errors in plane tabling.

Levelling: Definitions of terms-Methods of levelling-Uses and adjustments of dumpy level- Temporary and permanent adjustments of dumpy level levelling staves-Differential levelling, Profile levelling-Cross sections-Reciprocal levelling. Precise levelling-Definition of BS, IS, FS, HI, TP-Booking and reduction of levels, H.I. methods-Rise and fall method-Checks-Related problems-Curvature and refraction Related Problems-Correction-Reciprocal levelling-Related problems-L.S & C.S Leveling-Problems in levelling-Errors in levelling.

Minor instruments: Uses and adjustments of the following minor instruments:Line Ranger, Optical Square, Abney level, and Clinometer, Ceylon Ghat tracer, Pentagraph, Sextant and Planimeter.

Contouring: Definitions-Interval, Characteristics of contours-methods of locating contours- Direct and indirect methods-interpolation of contours-Contour gradient-Uses of contour maps. Contours mapping using computer techniques (surfer, CAD)

References:

1. Surveying By Dr. K.R. Arora, Standard Book
2. Surveying Vol. 1,2 and 3 – By Punmia, Standard Book
3. Surveying Vol. 1 and 2 – By S.K. Duggal, Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing
4. Surveying: Theory & Practices by James M. Anderson and Edward M. Mikhail
Civil 2.1 SyllabusAndhra University BE/B.Tech Syllabus,Civil 2.1 Syllabus,Civil Syllabus,Surveying – I Syllabus
Introduction: Classification and principles of surveying. Triangulation and Trilateration Earth as spheroid, datum, geoid, Azimuth, latitude, longitude, Map projections, scales, plans, & Maps. Chain surveying: Instrumentation for chaining – Errors due to incorrect chain-Chaining on uneven and sloping ground-Errors in chaining-Tape corrections – Problems: Base line measurement-chain Triangulation-Check lines, Tie...